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Eruca sativa (syn. E. vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell., Brassica eruca L.), is an edible <a href="/wiki/Annual_plant" title="Annual plant">annual plant</a>, commonly known as rocket, roquette, rucola or arugula, not to be confused with <a href="/wiki/Diplotaxis_tenuifolia" title="Diplotaxis tenuifolia">Wild rocket</a>. It is a species of <a href="/wiki/Eruca" title="Eruca">Eruca</a> native to the <a href="/wiki/Mediterranean_region" title="Mediterranean region" class="mw-redirect">Mediterranean region</a>, from <a href="/wiki/Morocco" title="Morocco">Morocco</a> and <a href="/wiki/Portugal" title="Portugal">Portugal</a> east to <a href="/wiki/Lebanon" title="Lebanon">Lebanon</a> and <a href="/wiki/Turkey" title="Turkey">Turkey</a>.<a href="#cite_note-mc-0">[1]</a><a href="#cite_note-blamey-1">[2]</a> It is closely related to <a href="/wiki/Eruca_vesicaria" title="Eruca vesicaria">Eruca vesicaria</a> and included by some botanists in that either as a <a href="/wiki/Subspecies" title="Subspecies">subspecies</a> E. vesicaria subsp. sativa<a href="#cite_note-fnwe-2">[3]</a> or not distinguished at all;<a href="#cite_note-fe-3">[4]</a> it can be distinguished from E. vesicaria by its early <a href="/wiki/Deciduous" title="Deciduous">deciduous</a> <a href="/wiki/Sepal" title="Sepal">sepals</a>.<a href="#cite_note-fnwe-2">[3]</a>

It is an <a href="/wiki/Annual_plant" title="Annual plant">annual plant</a> growing 20–100 centimetres (8–39 in) in height. The <a href="/wiki/Leaf" title="Leaf">leaves</a> are deeply pinnately lobed with four to ten small lateral lobes and a large terminal lobe. The <a href="/wiki/Flower" title="Flower">flowers</a> are 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) in diameter, arranged in a <a href="/wiki/Inflorescence#Simple_inflorescences" title="Inflorescence">corymb</a>, with the typical <a href="/wiki/Brassicaceae" title="Brassicaceae">Brassicaceae</a> flower structure; the petals are creamy white with purple veins, and the stamens yellow; the sepals are shed soon after the flower opens. The <a href="/wiki/Fruit" title="Fruit">fruit</a> is a <a href="/wiki/Siliqua_(plant)" title="Siliqua (plant)" class="mw-redirect">siliqua</a> (pod) 12–35 millimetres (0.5–1.4 in) long with an apical beak, and containing several <a href="/wiki/Seed" title="Seed">seeds</a> (which are edible). The species has a <a href="/wiki/Chromosome" title="Chromosome">chromosome</a> number of 2n = 22.<a href="#cite_note-blamey-1">[2]</a><a href="#cite_note-fnwe-2">[3]</a><a href="#cite_note-rhs-4">[5]</a>

Vernacular names include garden rocket<a href="#cite_note-fnwe-2">[3]</a> or simply rocket (British, Australian, Canadian & New Zealand English),<a href="#cite_note-blamey-1">[2]</a> eruca,<a href="#cite_note-blamey-1">[2]</a> rocket salad,<a href="#cite_note-usda-5">[6]</a> and arugula (American English). All names ultimately derive from the Latin word eruca, a name for an unspecified plant in the family Brassicaceae, probably a type of <a href="/wiki/Cabbage" title="Cabbage">cabbage</a>.<a href="#cite_note-oed-6">[7]</a>

  • <a href="#Ecology">1 Ecology</a>
  • <a href="#Cultivation_and_uses">2 Cultivation and uses</a>
  • <a href="#Gallery">3 Gallery</a>
  • <a href="#References">4 References</a>
  • <a href="#External_links">5 External links</a>

[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Eruca_sativa&action=edit&section=1" title="Edit section: Ecology">edit</a>] Ecology

It typically grows on dry, disturbed ground.<a href="#cite_note-blamey-1">[2]</a><a href="#cite_note-fnwe-2">[3]</a>

The leaves are eaten in salads, and also used as a food by the <a href="/wiki/Larva" title="Larva">larvae</a> of some <a href="/wiki/Lepidoptera" title="Lepidoptera">moth</a> species, including the <a href="/wiki/Garden_Carpet" title="Garden Carpet">Garden Carpet moth</a>.

[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Eruca_sativa&action=edit&section=2" title="Edit section: Cultivation and uses">edit</a>] Cultivation and uses

It is used as a <a href="/wiki/Leaf_vegetable" title="Leaf vegetable">leaf vegetable</a>, which looks like a longer leaved and open <a href="/wiki/Lettuce" title="Lettuce">lettuce</a>. It is rich in <a href="/wiki/Vitamin_C" title="Vitamin C">vitamin C</a> and <a href="/wiki/Potassium" title="Potassium">potassium</a>.<a href="#cite_note-7">[8]</a> It is frequently cultivated, although domestication cannot be considered complete. It has been grown in the <a href="/wiki/Mediterranean_area" title="Mediterranean area" class="mw-redirect">Mediterranean area</a> since <a href="/wiki/Roman_empire" title="Roman empire" class="mw-redirect">Roman</a> times, and is considered an <a href="/wiki/Aphrodisiac" title="Aphrodisiac">aphrodisiac</a>.<a href="#cite_note-8">[9]</a> Before the 1990s it was usually collected in the wild and was not cultivated on a large scale or researched scientifically. In addition to the leaves, the flowers (often used in salads as an edible garnish), young seed pods and mature seeds are all edible.

It is now cultivated in various places, especially in <a href="/wiki/Veneto" title="Veneto">Veneto</a>, <a href="/wiki/Italy" title="Italy">Italy</a>, but is available throughout the world. It is also locally <a href="/wiki/Naturalisation_(biology)" title="Naturalisation (biology)">naturalised</a> away from its native range in temperate regions around the world, including northern Europe and North America.<a href="#cite_note-blamey-1">[2]</a><a href="#cite_note-usda-5">[6]</a> In India, the mature seeds are known as Gargeer.

It has a rich, peppery taste, and has an exceptionally strong flavour for a leafy green. It is generally used in <a href="/wiki/Salad" title="Salad">salads</a>, often mixed with other greens in a <a href="/wiki/Mesclun" title="Mesclun">mesclun</a>, but is also cooked as a vegetable or used raw with <a href="/wiki/Pasta" title="Pasta">pasta</a> or meats in northern Italy and in western <a href="/wiki/Slovenia" title="Slovenia">Slovenia</a> (especially in the <a href="/wiki/Slovenian_Istria" title="Slovenian Istria">Slovenian Istria</a>). In <a href="/wiki/Italy" title="Italy">Italy</a>, rocket is often used in <a href="/wiki/Pizza" title="Pizza">pizzas</a>, added just before the baking period ends or immediately afterwards, so that it will not wilt in the heat. In the <a href="/wiki/Slovenian_Littoral" title="Slovenian Littoral">Slovenian Littoral</a>, it is often combined with boiled potatoes,<a href="#cite_note-9">[10]</a> also as a soup.<a href="#cite_note-10">[11]</a> In the later periods, it is frequently served together with cheese <a href="/wiki/Burek" title="Burek" class="mw-redirect">burek</a>, especially in the town of <a href="/wiki/Koper" title="Koper">Koper</a>.

On the island of <a href="/wiki/Ischia" title="Ischia">Ischia</a> in the <a href="/wiki/Gulf_of_Naples" title="Gulf of Naples">Gulf of Naples</a>, a <a href="/wiki/Digestif" title="Digestif" class="mw-redirect">digestive alcohol</a> called rucolino is made from the plant, a drink often enjoyed in small quantities following a meal. The liquor is a local specialty enjoyed in the same way as a <a href="/wiki/Limoncello" title="Limoncello">limoncello</a> or <a href="/wiki/Grappa" title="Grappa">grappa</a> and has a sweet peppery taste that washes down easily.

In <a href="/wiki/Brazil" title="Brazil">Brazil</a>, its use is widespread. Arugula is eaten raw in salads with dressing. A popular combination is arugula mixed with <a href="/wiki/Mozzarella" title="Mozzarella">Mozzarella</a> cheese (normally made out of buffalo dairy) and <a href="/wiki/Sun-dried_tomato" title="Sun-dried tomato">sun-dried tomato</a>.

In <a href="/wiki/Egypt" title="Egypt">Egypt</a> the plant is commonly eaten with <a href="/wiki/Ful_medames" title="Ful medames">ful medames</a> for breakfast, and regularly accompanies local seafood dishes.

In <a href="/wiki/West_Asia" title="West Asia" class="mw-redirect">West Asia</a> and <a href="/wiki/Northern_India" title="Northern India" class="mw-redirect">Northern India</a>, arugula seeds are pressed to make <a href="/wiki/Taramira_oil" title="Taramira oil">taramira oil</a>, used in pickling and (after aging to remove acridity) as a salad or cooking oil.<a href="#cite_note-11">[12]</a> The <a href="/wiki/Seed_cake" title="Seed cake">seed cake</a> is also used as animal feed.<a href="#cite_note-12">[13]</a>

[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Eruca_sativa&action=edit&section=3" title="Edit section: Gallery">edit</a>] Gallery

[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Eruca_sativa&action=edit&section=4" title="Edit section: References">edit</a>] References

  1. <a href="#cite_ref-mc_0-0">^</a> Med-Checklist: <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Eruca sativa</a>
  2. ^ <a href="#cite_ref-blamey_1-0">a</a> <a href="#cite_ref-blamey_1-1">b</a> <a href="#cite_ref-blamey_1-2">c</a> <a href="#cite_ref-blamey_1-3">d</a> <a href="#cite_ref-blamey_1-4">e</a> <a href="#cite_ref-blamey_1-5">f</a> Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0340401702" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0-340-40170-2</a>.
  3. ^ <a href="#cite_ref-fnwe_2-0">a</a> <a href="#cite_ref-fnwe_2-1">b</a> <a href="#cite_ref-fnwe_2-2">c</a> <a href="#cite_ref-fnwe_2-3">d</a> <a href="#cite_ref-fnwe_2-4">e</a> Flora of NW Europe: <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Eruca vesicaria</a>
  4. <a href="#cite_ref-fe_3-0">^</a> Flora Europaea: <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Eruca</a>
  5. <a href="#cite_ref-rhs_4-0">^</a> Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0333474945" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0-333-47494-5</a>.
  6. ^ <a href="#cite_ref-usda_5-0">a</a> <a href="#cite_ref-usda_5-1">b</a> USDA Plants Profile: <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa</a>
  7. <a href="#cite_ref-oed_6-0">^</a> <a href="/wiki/Oxford_English_Dictionary" title="Oxford English Dictionary">Oxford English Dictionary</a>
  8. <a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a>, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Arugula, Raw</a>
  9. <a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a> Upton, Julie, RD. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href=",,20307213_6,00.html">"7 Foods for Better Sex"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href=",,20307213_6,00.html">,,20307213_6,00.html</a>. Retrieved July 5, 2010. 
  10. <a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href=""></a>
  11. <a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href=""></a>
  12. <a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a> G.J.H. Grubben and O.A. Denton, ed. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">"Vegetables"</a>. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. 2. p. 295. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/90-5782-147-8" title="Special:BookSources/90-5782-147-8">90-5782-147-8</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href=""></a>. 
  13. <a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a> Das, Srinabas; Kumar Tyagi and Harjit Kaur (2004). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">"Evaluation of taramira oil-cake and reduction of its glucosinolate content by different treatments"</a>. Indian journal of animal sciences 73 (6): 687–691. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href=""></a>. 

[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Eruca_sativa&action=edit&section=5" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a>] External links

Arugula is an extremely healthy leafy green vegetable that has many amazing powers. In some gangs it's used as currency, for some it's a battle cry. Most often it's supplied by the ever mysterious Gary. Most people try to call him but always reach the wrong number.

Arugula can also be used to deter undesirables and charlatans (much as garlic deters vampiric activities).

Furthermore, it is often said that every time somebody calls Gary, an arugula plant blossoms in the high desert.

Many groms experience difficulty maintaining the operational status of their mopeds due to running their bikes without an arugula filter, the most common result of which is their carburetors becoming clogged with the leafy green plant. Contrary to popular belief, tying a used pair of women's tights around the air intake is NOT and acceptable alternative to running an arugula filter.